Male Surgeon Wins $15 Million Verdict in Suit Based on “Reverse Discrimination” and Anti-Male Bias; Hospital Requests New Trial

By George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law and Hartley Brooks, Law Clerk, The Health Law Firm
In a massive jury verdict awarding a male attending physician more than he requested, a jury found that a hospital demonstrated reverse discrimination and an anti-mail bias in how it handled a female resident physician’s complaint against him.
On January 8, 2024, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital urged a Pennsylvania Federal court to reverse a $15 million judgment against it over its handling of a sexual assault investigation in a gender bias case. In December 2023, a federal jury in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania found that there was proof that the hospital exhibited anti-male bias and violated a male orthopedic surgeon’s civil rights when it investigated allegations that he sexually assaulted a medical resident.  Thomas Jefferson University Hospital claimed the court unfairly excluded key evidence that would have countered the surgeon’s claims that the female medical resident was actually the aggressor.
The Initial Incident.
In 2018, Plaintiff John Abraham, a male orthopedic surgeon at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, alleged that a female resident physician attended a pool party at his residence and engaged in sexually aggressive behavior towards him without his consent.  According to the law suit, he reported the female resident’s conduct to the hospital.
Dr. Abraham later learned that the female resident had already filed a complaint against him, resulting in an investigation into his behavior.  No charges against him aver resulted from the hospital’s investigation or a related criminal investigation.
The Alleged Gender Discrimination. 
Dr. Abraham sued Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, accusing it of practicing discrimination against men during its investigation of the sexual assault allegations.  According to him, the hospital demonstrated gender bias by disregarding his allegation that he was assaulted by the female and pressuring him to take a leave of absence.  This was compounded by its failure to take any action against the alleged female aggressor about whom he complained.  The investigation was eventually terminated with no findings after Dr. Abraham relinquished his privileges at the hospital.
In the suit Dr. Abraham sought $5 million in compensatory damages.  However, after the four-day civil trial, the federal jury awarded him $11 million in compensatory damages and $4 million in punitive damages.
The Hospital’s Request for a New Trial.
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital requested a new trial after the jury handed down the verdict. The hospital claimed that the court excluded critical evidence that it would have used on cross-examination of Dr. Abraham to help it win its case.  The excluded evidence included texts stating Dr. Abraham was not drunk at the party and that he intended to have sex with the female resident even though he knew it was unethical because she was his student.
The hospital also argued that the court gave incorrect jury instructions about the difference between anti-male discrimination and anti-respondent discrimination in a sexual assault investigation. According to the hospital’s motion, taking “risk minimization measures” against someone accused of sexual assault, like placing them on a leave of absence, is not cause for a Title IX gender discrimination lawsuit. Additionally, the hospital claims, not specifying this difference to the jury incorrectly led the jury to believe that anti-respondent bias was, in fact, anti-male bias.
The judge has not yet ruled on the hospital’s request.
To read two recent blogs I wrote about Title IX and its applications to resident physicians and fellows, click here and here.
Contact Experienced Health Law Attorneys Representing Health Care Professionals, Medical Students, Residents, and Fellows.
The Health Law Firm routinely represents students, including medical students, dental students, nursing students, pharmacy students, resident physicians, and fellows, who have legal problems with their schools or programs. We also represent students, residents, and fellows in investigations, academic probation and suspensions, disciplinary hearings, clinical competence committee (CCC) hearings, and appeals of adverse actions taken against them. The Health Law Firm’s attorneys include those who are board-certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law as well as licensed health professionals who are also attorneys.
Our firm also specializes in providing legal representation to a wide range of healthcare professionals, including pharmacists, massage therapists, mental health counselors, registered nurses, and more.
To contact The Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 or Toll-Free (888) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.
Sources:
Abraham v. Thomas Jefferson University No. 2:20-cv-02967-MMB (E.D. PA. January 8, 2024)
Abraham v. Thomas Jefferson University No. 2:20-cv-02967-MMB (E.D. PA. June 19, 2020)
D’Annunzio, P.J.. “Info Kept From Jury In $15M Gender Bias Case, Pa. Court Told.” Law360. (9 January 2024) https://www.law360.com/articles/1783770
Rock, Amy. “Thomas Jefferson University to Pay $15 Million to Male Surgeon for Gender-Biased Rape Investigation.” Campus Safety Magazine. (15 December 2023) https://www.campussafetymagazine.com/university/thomas-jefferson-university-to-pay-15-million-to-male-surgeon-for-gender-biased-rape-investigation/
Ruderman, Wendy. “Former Rothman orthopedic surgeon takes on Jefferson in federal court over sexual assault allegations.” The Philadelphia Inquirer. (5 December 2023) https://www.inquirer.com/health/john-abraham-rothman-jefferson-sex-discrimination-case-jury-federal-20231205.html
About the Authors: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law. He is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice.
Hartley Brooks is a law clerk with The Health Law Firm. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida area.
The Health Law Firm can be visited at:  www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Avenue, Suite 1000, Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620 or Toll-Free: (888) 331-6620.
Current Open Positions with The Health Law Firm. The Health Law Firm always seeks qualified individuals interested in health law. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. If you are a current member of The Florida Bar or a qualified professional who is interested, please forward a cover letter and resume to: [email protected] or fax them to (407) 331-3030.
“The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of and a registered service mark of The Health Law Firm, P.A., a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2024 George F. Indest III, The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any way in any medium without the written permission of the copyright owner. The author of this work reserves the right to have his name associated with any use or publication of this work or any part of it.
By |2024-03-14T09:59:09-04:00March 26, 2024|Categories: Health Facilities Law Blog, Mental Health Law Blog|Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |Comments Off on Male Surgeon Wins $15 Million Verdict in Suit Based on “Reverse Discrimination” and Anti-Male Bias; Hospital Requests New Trial

Supreme Court of Pennsylvania Says Serial Killer Cannot Sue Psychiatrist for Medical Malpractice

Author headshot standing in dark suit with red tie against a dark grey backgroundBy: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law and Hartley Brooks, Law Clerk, The Health Law Firm

On November 22, 2023, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania unanimously decided that a serial killer cannot sue his psychiatrist for gross negligence because the action is barred by the Pennsylvania state law that prohibits criminals from benefitting from their crimes.

The Murderer’s Mental Health History.

In February 2016, Cosmo DiNardo was diagnosed with a major depressive disorder. Three months later, DiNardo was in an ATV accident in which he sustained head injuries. His mother reported that he began acting bizarrely a month after the accident. Additionally, DiNardo was also diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. He was prescribed strong antidepressants and antipsychotics.

DiNardo also had a violent history. During his institutionalizations, he allegedly attacked his mother and father on multiple occasions, as well as hospital staff members. He was also allegedly banned from his high school campus and university due to behavioral issues. It is also reported that doctors reported that DiNardo had homicidal and suicidal tendencies.

The Murders and Mr. DiNardo’s Confession.

On July 5, 2017, Cosmo DiNardo lured a 19-year-old to his family’s farm and shot and killed him. The next night, he and his cousin lured three more young men to the property and killed them as well. DiNardo and his accomplice disposed of the bodies by burning and burying them on the property. DiNardo was arrested days later after police located the grave site on the farm. He confessed to the murders.

In May 2018, DiNardo pleaded guilty to four counts of first-degree murder. He is serving four consecutive life sentences.

The Complaint Against the Psychiatrist.

DiNardo’s mother filed a complaint on DiNardo’s behalf that claimed his criminal conduct was the result of grossly negligent psychiatric treatment. In early 2017, the treating psychiatrist is alleged to have deemed DiNardo to be in remission from his bipolar disorder and reduced his medication dosage.

On July 6, 2017, the day after he murdered his first victim, DiNardo had an appointment with the psychiatrist. The psychiatrist continued to believe that DiNardo was not a risk to himself or others and advised him to cease his medication intake. That night, he murdered three more people.

The complaint claimed that if it were not for the psychiatrist’s grossly negligent failure to assess DiNardo’s risk for violence, then he would not have been involved in the murders. The complaint sought compensation for the emotional distress and pain DiNardo endured because he murdered four people and will live the rest of his life in prison.

Pennsylvania’s No Felony Conviction Recovery Rule.

The no felony conviction recovery rule is a Pennsylvania state law that prohibits convicted felons from profiting or benefitting from their criminal conduct. This law barred DiNardo’s mother’s complaint against the psychiatrist.

DiNardo pleaded guilty to four counts of first-degree murder. He did not plead insanity or guilty but mentally ill. He pleaded guilty and thus accepted full responsibility as an active participant in the murders. Therefore he must bear the losses sustained from his criminal actions.

The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania unanimously decided that the no felony conviction recovery rule barred the complaint because the compensation sought would benefit DiNardo for his criminal conduct.

Although the outcome of this case turned on an idiosyncracy in Pennsylvania law, it is doubtful that the case would have ever made it beyond the summary judgment stage anyway. There are no facts showing hope the psychiatrist would have had any way of knowing facts other than what the patient reported to her. There was no evidence that the parents had attempted to take any action to have DiNardo involuntarily confined or treated of mental illness, filed for a guardianship, attended sessions with the psychiatrist, or anything else. Perhaps they should have.

This modern trend of blaming others for our own shortcomings (and those of our children, needs to stop.

Psychiatrists are not miracle workers. They cannot read people’s minds. They cannot predict the future.

Furthermore, it is common knowledge (thanks in part to the HBO series “The Sopranos” and its storyline of Tony Soprano’s sessions with his psychiatrist, that there have been journal articles reporting that psychopaths and serial killers may use sessions with psychiatrists as a tool to sharpen their skills at deception and learn how to avoid getting caught and convicted.) (I don’t usually quote fictitious medical studies articles from fictitious TV series and movies, but actor Peter Bogdanovich, playing psychiatrist Elliot Kupferberg, was pretty convincing on this issue.)

The precedential case on the liability of psychiatrists for misdiagnosing murderers is, of course, Tarasoff vs. Board of Regents of the University of California, 17 Cal. 3d 425, 551 P.2d 334, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14 (Cal. 1976). This cases is a must for the reading and education of all psychiatrists, psychologists and psychotherapists.

Contact Health Law Attorneys Experienced in Representing Health Care Professionals and Providers.

At the Health Law Firm we provide legal services for all health care providers and professionals. This representation includes psychiatrists, mental health counselors, social workers, psychologists, physicians, nurses, dentists, psychologists, medical students and interns, as well as other health care providers.

The lawyers of The Health Law Firm are experienced in both formal and informal administrative hearings and in civil litigation in state and federal courts. We represent physicians and other health professionals in cases before medical boards, before state licensing agencies, and in National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) disputes. We represent physicians accused of wrongdoing, in patient complaint investigations and in Department of Health and in board licensing investigations in other states investigations.

To contact The Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 or toll free (888) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

Sources:

Cipriano, Ralph. “The Untold Tale of Cosmo DiNardo’s Descent Into Murder and Madness.” Philadelphia City Life. (25 February 2020) https://www.phillymag.com/news/2020/02/25/cosmo-dinardo/

Dinardo v. Kohler No. J-8A-B-2023 (E.D. Pa. November 22, 2023)

D’Annunzio, P.J.. “Pa. Murderer Can’t Sue Doctors For Psychiatric Malpractice.” Law360. (27 November 2023) https://www.law360.com/health/articles/1769646?nl_pk=0cbd4c0b-c6c8-416a-9e67-b4affa63b102&utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=health&utm_content=2023-11-28&read_main=1&nlsidx=0&nlaidx=13

Henry, Tanya Albert. “He killed 4 men. Now he seeks compensation from his care team.” American Medical Association. (9 December 2022) https://www.ama-assn.org/practice-management/sustainability/he-killed-4-men-now-he-seeks-compensation-his-care-team

About the Authors: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law; he is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Hartley Brooks is a law clerk with The Health Law Firm. Its main office is in Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Avenue, Suite 1000, Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620 or Toll-Free: (888) 331-6620.

Attorney Positions with The Health Law Firm. The Health Law Firm is always looking for qualified attorneys interested in health law practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. If you are a member of The Florida Bar and are interested, forward a cover letter and your resume to: [email protected] or fax to: (407) 331-3030.

“The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of and a registered service mark of The Health Law Firm, P.A., a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2024 George F. Indest III, The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any way in any medium without the written permission of the copyright owner. The author of this work reserves the right to have his name associated with any use or publication of this work or any part of it.

Medicare Final Rule Decreased Physician Payments But Expands Coverage to Counselors

Attorney and Author George F. Indest III HeadshotBy George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law and Hartley Brooks, Law Clerk, The Health Law Firm

On November 2, 2023, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) issued a final rule that decreased overall payment rates for services provided under the Physician Fee Schedule (PFS). However, the final rule increased payment rates for outpatient services and expanded telehealth services. The rule went into effect January 1, 2024.

Physician Fee Schedule Rate Reductions; Counselors Added.

The overall payment rates under the 2024 PFS were reduced by 1.25 percent for 2024. The conversion factor is $32.74, which is a $1.15 decrease from 2023. Physicians’ Medicare reimbursements will fall by 3.4 percent under the PFS in 2024.

However, in a piece of good news, the 2024 final rule allows marriage and family therapists and mental health counselors, including addiction counselors, to enroll in Medicare and bill the program, for the first time ever.

Telehealth Expansions.

The PFS 2024 final rule expanded telemedicine and established that telehealth providers will be paid the non-facility rate for telehealth services. Under the rule, CMS will temporarily add health and well-being coaching services to the Medicare Telehealth Services List in 2024. Social Determinants of Health Risk Assessments will also be permanently added to the Telehealth Services List. The final rule also expanded the types of telehealth practitioners to include occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech-language pathologists, and audiologists.

The final rule allows all diabetes self-management training services via telehealth. It also enables teaching physicians to be present using telecommunications when a resident furnishes telehealth services.

Finally, the rule established that rural health clinics and federally qualified health centers will continue receiving payment for telehealth services.

Outpatient Program Payment Increases.

CMS increased Medicare payments for hospital outpatient departments and ambulatory surgical centers by 3.1 percent for 2024. Stipulations in the Outpatient Prospective Payment Program final rule require hospitals to display standard charge information that conforms to a CMS template. Hospitals have been required to post the prices of services online since 2021, but compliance could be better.

Consult with a Health Law Attorney Experienced in Medicare and Medicaid Issues Now.

The lawyers of The Health Law Firm routinely represent physicians, medical groups, clinics, pharmacies, durable medical equipment (DME) suppliers, home health agencies, nursing homes and other healthcare providers in Medicare and Medicaid investigations, audits and recovery actions. They also represent them in preparing and submitting corrective action plans (CAPs), requests for reconsideration, and appeal hearings, including Medicare administrative hearings before an administrative law judge. Attorneys of The Health Law Firm represent health providers in actions initiated by the Medicaid Fraud Control Units (MFCUs), in False Claims Act cases, in actions initiated by the state to exclude or terminate from the Medicaid Program or by the HHS OIG to exclude from the Medicare Program.

To contact The Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 or toll free at (888) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.ThehealthLawFirm.com.

Sources:

“Calendar Year (CY) 2024 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule Final Rule.” CMS.gov Newsroom. (2 November 2023) https://www.cms.gov/newsroom/fact-sheets/calendar-year-cy-2024-medicare-physician-fee-schedule-final-rule

“CY 2024 Medicare Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment System Final Rule (CMS 1786-FC).” CMS.gov Newsroom. (2 November 2023) https://www.cms.gov/newsroom/fact-sheets/cy-2024-medicare-hospital-outpatient-prospective-payment-system-and-ambulatory-surgical-center-0

“CMS issues CY 2024 physician fee schedule final rule.” American Hospital Association. (2 November 2023) https://www.aha.org/news/headline/2023-11-02-cms-issues-cy-2024-physician-fee-schedule-final-rule

“CMS Issues Physician Fee Schedule Final Rule with Payment Rate Cut.” American Health Law Association Health Law Weekly. (3 November 2023) https://www.americanhealthlaw.org/content-library/health-law-weekly/article/e144866d-b571-4b10-98d0-530c46f3f5e7/CMS-Issues-Physician-Fee-Schedule-Proposed-Rule-wi?Token=fe443b47-6081-4bae-bc4a-936ffe203608

HHS Press Office. “CMS Finalizes Physician Payment Rules that Advances Health Equity.” United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2 November 2023) https://www.hhs.gov/about/news/2023/11/02/cms-finalizes-physician-payment-rule-advances-health-equity.html

“Medicare Payments for Hospital Outpatient Services to Increase 3.1% in 2024.” American Health Law Association Health Law Weekly. (3 November 2023) https://www.americanhealthlaw.org/content-library/health-law-weekly/article/dcc44d7b-c122-49fd-9e5a-9918549f2c44/Medicare-Payments-for-Hospital-Outpatient-Services

Pifer, Rebecca. “CMS finalizes 2024 Medicare hospital, doctor payments, 340B fix and price transparency requirements.” Healthcare Dive. (3 November 2023) https://www.healthcaredive.com/news/cms-medicare-hospital-doctor-rates-2024-340b-transparency/698706/

Vaidya, Anuja. “New PFS Rule Includes Telehealth Payment, Address Reporting Wins.” mHealth Intelligence Healthcare Media. (3 November 2023) https://mhealthintelligence.com/news/new-pfs-rule-includes-telehealth-payment-address-reporting-wins

About the Authors: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law; he is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice.

Hartley Brooks is a law clerk with The Health Law Firm.

The Health Law Firm’s main office is in Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Avenue, Suite 1000, Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620 or Toll-Free: (888) 331-6620.

Current Open Positions with The Health Law Firm. The Health Law Firm always seeks qualified individuals interested in health law. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. If you are a current member of The Florida Bar or a qualified professional who is interested, please forward a cover letter and resume to: [email protected] or fax them to (407) 331-3030.

“The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of and a registered service mark of The Health Law Firm, P.A., a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2024 George F. Indest III, The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced by anyone in any medium without the author’s express written permission. The author reserves the right to have his name associated with this work at all times.

Florid Man Strikes Again–Government Asks for Life Sentence for Florida Man in $187M Medicare Fraud Case

George IndestBy George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law and Hartley Brooks, Law Clerk, The Health Law Firm

On August 12, 2023, federal prosecutors recommended a life sentence for the Florida ex-CEO of a laboratory company who had been found guilty of fraudulently billing Medicare over one hundred million dollars. At the December 2022 trial of the Florida man, the jury convicted the Florida Man of all ten counts against him, including health care fraud, payment of kickbacks, and conspiracy to commit money laundering. He was ordered to pay $187 million in restitution.

I have to say it. They need to lock up that Florida man once and for all! I see his wanton actions all over Florida, reported time and time again. Now that Tim Dorsey is deceased (bless his Florida soul) we don’t have a character like Serge Storms to go around and assassinate (at least literarily) such evildoers as Florida man. Will this mean a big upsurge in crimes committed by Florida man?

Specifics of the Health Care Fraud Committed.

From 2016 to 2019, the ex-CEO operated with co-conspirators out of Palm Beach County to conduct a scheme that spanned the entire country. The Florida Man was the CEO of the laboratory company and the architect of the fraudulent scheme. The ex-CEO oversaw and approved every step of the Medicare fraud process.

The Florida Man recruited and bribed patient brokers, directed the use of deceptive marketing techniques, encouraged the use of telemedicine companies that gave approval without consideration, and took measures to conceal the fraud and make it seem legitimate.

The ex-CEO bribed patient brokers, telemedicine companies, and telemarketing companies to contact Medicare beneficiaries and pressure them into taking medically unnecessary genetic tests through his laboratory company.

I would find it hard to believe that such willful and wanton illegal acts occur in the great state of Florida, except that I get about ten phone calls a day from these people trying to hook me into their phony schemes. Well, after this conviction, maybe I’ll only be getting nine phone calls a day from them (unless they allow Florida man unlimited phone calls for such purposes from his prison cell; and since this is Florida, they may well do that!).

He also instructed co-conspirators to go to nursing homes, bingo halls, adult day care facilities, and poor communities in the Atlanta area to pressure Medicare beneficiaries into taking the genetic test.

A single genetic test billed to Medicare could earn the ex-CEO $9,000. In three years, the lab billed Medicare $463 million, of which $187 million was paid out. The Florida Man personally earned $21 million which he spent on luxury purchases, like a Ferrari.

Effects of the Fraud.

The Florida Man exposed Medicare to a fraud where it paid $187 million for medically unnecessary genetic tests; an exorbitant loss. The scheme also confused patients and confounded doctors.

One victim of the fraud was led to believe that the genetic test would tell her if her cancer would return. She took the test and, since it was negative for the mutated gene, she was wrongly led to believe her cancer would not return. Her cancer did return.

Another victim of the fraud tested positive for a gene mutation that they did not actually have. This made their primary care doctor re-bill the genetic test to Medicare to confirm the results. This test came back negative for the gene mutation. The lab’s test was faulty and gave an inaccurate result.

The federal prosecutors argued that the Florida Man preyed on cancer survivors, elderly patients, and people afraid of getting cancer to steal hundreds of millions of dollars from a social safety net.

Sentencing Recommendation.

The government recommended that the Florida Man’s sentencing be considered in decades, rather than months or years, due to the seriousness of the crime and the man’s unwillingness to accept responsibility or show remorse.

During the trial and in post-conviction pleadings, the ex-CEO continuously placed blame on his lawyers, his employees, and the lab directors. He claimed that the kickbacks and bribes were contracts reviewed and negotiated by lawyers and the genetic tests were appropriate and properly signed by physicians.

The government also recommended that the restitution be increased because, even though only $187 million was paid out by Medicare, the laboratory company billed Medicare $463 million. Prosecutors argued that the restitution should be calculated based on the intended loss of $463 million.

The federal prosecutors claimed that since this is one of the largest genetic testing scheme ever brought to trial, the sentencing must act as a deterrent. The prosecutors argued that a life sentence for the Florida Man would reflect the seriousness of the Medicare fraud and deter others from conducting similar healthcare fraud schemes.

Contact Health Law Attorneys Experienced Health Care Fraud and Anti-Kickback Statute Violations.

The attorneys of The Health Law Firm represent healthcare providers in cases of medical billing fraud, overbilling, Medicare audits, Integrity Contractor audits RAC audits, and False Claims Act cases throughout Florida and across the United States. Our attorneys also represent physicians, medical groups, nursing homes, home health agencies, pharmacies, hospitals, and other healthcare providers and institutions in Medicare and Medicaid investigations, audits, recovery actions, and termination from the Medicare or Medicaid Program.

To contact The Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 or toll-free at (888) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

About the Authors: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law; he is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Hartley Brooks is a law clerk with the health law firm. Its main office is in Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Avenue, Suite 1000, Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620 or Toll-Free: (888) 331-6620.

Attorney Positions with The Health Law Firm. The Health Law Firm is always looking for qualified attorneys interested in health law practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. If you are a member of The Florida Bar and are interested, forward a cover letter and your resume to: [email protected] or fax to: (407) 331-3030.

“The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of and a registered service mark of The Health Law Firm, P.A., a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999. Copyright © 2023 The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved.

Supreme Court of Pennsylvania Says Serial Killer Cannot Sue Psychiatrist for Medical Malpractice

author headshot standing in dark suit with arms crossedBy: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law and Hartley Brooks, Law Clerk, The Health Law Firm

On November 22, 2023, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania unanimously decided that a serial killer cannot sue his psychiatrist for gross negligence because the action is barred by the Pennsylvania state law that prohibits criminals from benefitting from their crimes.

The Murderer’s Mental Health History.

In February 2016, Cosmo DiNardo was diagnosed with a major depressive disorder. Three months later, DiNardo was in an ATV accident in which he sustained head injuries. His mother reported that he began acting bizarrely a month after the accident. Additionally, DiNardo was also diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. He was prescribed strong antidepressants and antipsychotics.

DiNardo also had a violent history. During his institutionalizations, he allegedly attacked his mother and father on multiple occasions, as well as hospital staff members. He was also allegedly banned from his high school campus and university due to behavioral issues. It is also reported that doctors reported that DiNardo had homicidal and suicidal tendencies.

The Murders and Mr. DiNardo’s Confession.

On July 5, 2017, Cosmo DiNardo lured a 19-year-old to his family’s farm and shot and killed him. The next night, he and his cousin lured three more young men to the property and killed them as well. DiNardo and his accomplice disposed of the bodies by burning and burying them on the property. DiNardo was arrested days later after police located the grave site on the farm. He confessed to the murders.

In May 2018, DiNardo pleaded guilty to four counts of first-degree murder. He is serving four consecutive life sentences.

The Complaint Against the Psychiatrist.

DiNardo’s mother filed a complaint on DiNardo’s behalf that claimed his criminal conduct was the result of grossly negligent psychiatric treatment. In early 2017, the treating psychiatrist was alleged to have deemed DiNardo to be in remission from his bipolar disorder and reduced his medication dosage.

On July 6, 2017, the day after he murdered his first victim, DiNardo had an appointment with the psychiatrist. The psychiatrist continued to believe that DiNardo was not a risk to himself or others and advised him to cease his medication intake. That night, he murdered three more people.

The complaint claimed that if it were not for the psychiatrist’s grossly negligent failure to assess DiNardo’s risk for violence, then he would not have been involved in the murders. The complaint sought compensation for the emotional distress and pain DiNardo endured because he murdered four people and will live the rest of his life in prison.

Pennsylvania’s No Felony Conviction Recovery Rule.

The no felony conviction recovery rule is a Pennsylvania state law that prohibits convicted felons from profiting or benefitting from their criminal conduct. This law barred DiNardo’s mother’s complaint against the psychiatrist.

DiNardo pleaded guilty to four counts of first-degree murder. He did not plead insanity or guilty but was mentally ill. He pleaded guilty and thus accepted full responsibility as an active participant in the murders. Therefore, he must bear the losses sustained from his criminal actions.

The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania unanimously decided that the no felony conviction recovery rule barred the complaint because the compensation sought would benefit DiNardo for his criminal conduct.

Although the outcome of this case turned on an idiosyncrasy in Pennsylvania law, it is doubtful that the case would have ever made it beyond the summary judgment stage anyway. There are no facts showing hope the psychiatrist would have had any way of knowing facts other than what the patient reported to her. There was no evidence that the parents had attempted to take any action to have DiNardo involuntarily confined or treated for mental illness, filed for guardianship, attended sessions with the psychiatrist, or anything else. Perhaps they should have.

This modern trend of blaming others for our shortcomings (and those of our children, needs to stop).

Psychiatrists are not miracle workers. They cannot read people’s minds. They cannot predict the future.

Furthermore, it is common knowledge (thanks in part to the HBO series “The Sopranos” and its storyline of Tony Soprano’s sessions with his psychiatrist, that there have been journal articles reporting that psychopaths and serial killers may use sessions with psychiatrists as a tool to sharpen their skills at deception and learn how to avoid getting caught and convicted.) (I don’t usually quote fictitious medical studies articles from fictitious TV series and movies, but actor Peter Bogdanovich, playing psychiatrist Elliot Kupferberg, was pretty convincing on this issue.)

The precedential case on the liability of psychiatrists for misdiagnosing murderers is, of course, Tarasoff vs. Board of Regents of the University of California, 17 Cal. 3d 425, 551 P.2d 334, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14 (Cal. 1976). This case is necessary for reading and educating all psychiatrists, psychologists, and psychotherapists.

Contact Health Law Attorneys Experienced in Representing Health Care Professionals and Providers.

At the Health Law Firm, we provide legal services for all health care providers and professionals. This representation includes psychiatrists, mental health counselors, social workers, psychologists, physicians, nurses, dentists, psychologists, medical students and interns, and other health care providers.

The lawyers of The Health Law Firm are experienced in both formal and informal administrative hearings and in civil litigation in state and federal courts. We represent physicians and other health professionals in cases before medical boards, before state licensing agencies, and in National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) disputes. We represent physicians accused of wrongdoing, in patient complaint investigations and in Department of Health and in board licensing investigations in other states investigations.

To contact The Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 or toll-free (888) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

Sources:

Cipriano, Ralph. “The Untold Tale of Cosmo DiNardo’s Descent Into Murder and Madness.” Philadelphia City Life. (25 February 2020) https://www.phillymag.com/news/2020/02/25/cosmo-dinardo/

Dinardo v. Kohler No. J-8A-B-2023 (E.D. Pa. November 22, 2023)

D’Annunzio, P.J.. “Pa. Murderer Can’t Sue Doctors For Psychiatric Malpractice.” Law360. (27 November 2023) https://www.law360.com/health/articles/1769646?nl_pk=0cbd4c0b-c6c8-416a-9e67-b4affa63b102&utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=health&utm_content=2023-11-28&read_main=1&nlsidx=0&nlaidx=13

Henry, Tanya Albert. “He killed 4 men. Now he seeks compensation from his care team.” American Medical Association. (9 December 2022) https://www.ama-assn.org/practice-management/sustainability/he-killed-4-men-now-he-seeks-compensation-his-care-team

About the Authors: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law; he is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Hartley Brooks is a law clerk with The Health Law Firm. Its main office is in Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Avenue, Suite 1000, Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620 or Toll-Free: (888) 331-6620.

Attorney Positions with The Health Law Firm. The Health Law Firm is always looking for qualified attorneys interested in health law practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. If you are a member of The Florida Bar and are interested, forward a cover letter and your resume to: [email protected] or fax to: (407) 331-3030.

“The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of and a registered service mark of The Health Law Firm, P.A., a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2024 George F. Indest III, The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any way in any medium without the written permission of the copyright owner. The author of this work reserves the right to have his name associated with any use or publication of this work or any part of it.

Centene to Pay Washington State $19 Million to Resolve Medicaid Fraud Allegations

Author HeadshotBy George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law

On August 24, 2022, managed healthcare company, Centene Corporation, agreed to pay $19 million to the State of Washington to settle fraud allegations. Centene owns and operates Sunshine State Health Plan, d/b/a Sunshine Health, in Florida. In addition, it has been reported that Centene/Sunshine Health reportedly has over $31 billion in contracts with the state of Florida alone. Click here to learn more.

The agreement with Washington State resolves allegations that it overcharged its Medicaid program for pharmacy benefit management services, Washington Attorney General Bob Ferguson announced in a press release.

Under the deal, in addition to the $19 million payment to Washington State, the federal government will receive $13.3 million related to the settlement, according to the Attorney General’s office. In addition, a whistleblower who sued the company on behalf of the state will also receive $1 million. It is the second-largest Medicaid fraud settlement in Washington’s history.

An Investigation and a Whistleblower.

According to the press release, the Washington AG’s office began investigating pharmacy benefit managers in 2019 after a whistleblower said the company failed to disclose actual pharmacy benefits and service costs. Furthermore, Centene allegedly failed to pass on discounts it received to the state Medicaid program, causing inflated fees, according to the release.

Washington sued Centene in July 2022, alleging the company and a subsidiary, Coordinated Care of Washington, violated the state’s Medicaid False Claims Act. Coordinated Care of Washington contracts with Washington’s Health Care Authority to manage its Medicaid program, Apple Health.

Shelling Out Big Bucks For Settlements.

Centene did not admit to any wrongdoing in this case, as is usual with settlement agreements. “This no-fault agreement reflects the significance we place on addressing their concerns and our ongoing commitment to making healthcare delivery local, simple and transparent,” Centene’s spokesperson said.

But, while denying any wrongdoing, it has settled claims over similar alleged conduct in ten other states for more than $260 million. Additionally, it said last year that it was still in negotiations with more states and had set aside $1.25 billion to settle such claims. Click here to learn more. 

To view the settlement agreement in full, click here. 

Similar Patterns of Misconduct?

We need to ask: “Is this the business model of Centene and its different owned subsidiary companies?” We note that on March 22, 2022, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) assessed civil monetary penalties (CMP) against Centene Corporation for similar alleged wrongful activities involving the states of California, South Carolina, Texas, Ohio, Michigan, and others.  And in a letter dated March 11, 2022, the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration issued a $9.1 million fine over Centene/Sunshine Health’s improper failure to pay benefits to Florida’s neediest, sick children.  We have not found any report that Centene challenged or appealed either government penalty.

When multiple billions of dollars in government contracts are handed out to one contractor, and it is the subject of so many allegedly wrongful acts, one must ask if it is just treating such penalties and fines as the routine costs of doing business. Considering that $9.1 million is less than three (3) hundredths of a percent (.0003) of its $31 billion in contracts with the state of Florida, this cost may not even be significant enough for it to post on its profit ad loss statements.

Contact Health Law Attorneys Experienced with Medicare and Medicaid Audits, Healthcare Audits, and Insurance Payment Disputes.

The attorneys of The Health Law Firm represent counselors, therapists, physicians, healthcare providers and healthcare facilities in defense of Medicare and Medicaid audits, audits by insurance companies and managed care, and demands for repayment of overpayments. They represent healthcare providers in audits, audit appeals and repayment disputes against Centene Corporation and Sunshine Sate Health Plan d/b/a Sunshine Health. They also represent healthcare providers in defense against allegations of false billing, overbilling, False Claims Act violations and civil monetary penalties (CMP).

Our attorneys represent physicians, mental health counselors, behavior therapists, professional counselors, occupational therapists, social workers, medical groups, home health agencies, pharmacies, pharmacists, home nursing care providers, and other healthcare providers and institutions.

To contact The Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 or toll-free at (888) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

Sources:

Redmond, Nell. “Centene to pay $33.3 million to settle Washington Medicaid fraud claims.” Reuters. (August 25, 2022). Web.

Elletson, Grace. “Centene Strikes $33M Deal To End Wash. Medicaid Fraud Suit.” Law360. (September 2, 2022). Web.

Health Law Weekly. “Centene Will Pay $19 Million to Resolve Medicaid Fraud Allegations.” AHLA. (September 2, 2022). Web.

About the Author: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law. He is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Ave. Suite 1000, Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620 Toll-Free: (888) 331-6620

Attorney Positions with The Health Law Firm. The Health Law Firm is always looking for qualified attorneys interested in the practice of health law. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. If you are a member of The Florida Bar and are interested, forward a cover letter and your resume to: [email protected] or fax to: (407) 331-3030.

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By |2024-03-14T09:59:14-04:00January 8, 2024|Categories: Mental Health Law Blog|Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |Comments Off on Centene to Pay Washington State $19 Million to Resolve Medicaid Fraud Allegations

Tele-behavioral Health: Important Legal Considerations for Mental Health Providers

By Amanda I. Forbes, J.D.

Starting in 2020 and throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, tele-behavioral health services, also known as “e-counseling,” rapidly expanded. Because individuals were quarantined or fearful to venture out, remote mental health care services became very popular among patients. A study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), including 36 million working-age individuals, revealed that tele-health services increased by 766% in the first three months of the pandemic.

Thanks to remote services like tele-behavioral health, the doctor’s “house call” is making a comeback;  but instead of ringing the doorbell, your doctor will be ringing your smartphone.

What is Tele-behavioral Health?

The National Institute of Mental Health defines telebehavioral health as “the use of telecommunications or videoconferencing technology to provide remote mental health services.” Providers can use video conferencing, text messaging, or smartphone apps. Additionally, many different types of behavioral health services are available remotely.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) says remote visits are a safe and convenient way for mental and behavioral health providers to offer services such as:

1. One-on-one and group therapy
2. Substance abuse counseling
3. Medication management and prescribing
4. Anxiety and depression monitoring
5. Mental health screening
6. Referrals

What Are the Potential Benefits?
Tele-behavioral health services enable clinicians to reach more patients, such as people living in rural areas, working irregular hours, and homebound patients. It removes patient barriers to attending in-person appointments, such as taking time off work, transportation, and arranging childcare.

The Downside to Tele-behavioral Health.

In addition to its convenience, tele-behavioral health also ushers in a new era of risks for treatment providers to be aware of.  It’s particularly true if the counseling occurs via text or a similar instant messaging application. As a licensed mental health care professional, you must know about liability exposures and ways to improve patient safety.
Click here to read about a case study demonstrating the issues that can arise when conducting tele-behavioral health.
When it comes to tele-behavioral health services and technology, there are significant legal considerations to think about.
To make sure you can provide remote counseling effectively while handling the risks that come with it, follow these risk management tips and recommendations:

1. Obtain the necessary training to provide telebehavioral health services. Take continuing education units (CEUs) in tele-behavioral health and retain any certificates of completion associated with those CEUs.

2. Determine whether tele-behavioral health treatment is in the client’s best interest. The provider should consider the following: Can the client effectively use the technology required for tele-behavioral health?  Does the client’s insurance cover telebehavioral health services?  Is the client emotionally and cognitively compatible with this treatment modality?

3. Obtain informed consent from the client.  In addition, document the purpose of the counseling, the use of technology to facilitate the tele-behavioral health services, and confidentiality and privacy. Obtain informed consent by having the client sign a consent form.  Have a document record of the consent process and consent form in the client’s file.

4. Providers must adhere to encryption standards. Some examples are using a secure platform, ensuring that the vendor signs a HIPAA Business Associate Agreement, which is required by HIPAA laws and regulations, and stating the vendor will follow federal privacy requirements.
5. Ensure client confidentiality by advising them of their responsibility to be in a private space during the telebehavioral health session. Document this discussion and include this as part of your agreement with the client.

6. Providers must check their state and third-party requirements related to tele-behavioral health services, credentialing, and licensure. Contact your respective licensing board for additional information and consult a health law attorney if unsure.

To read one of our prior blogs on telehealth services and learn more information on this growing area of practice, click here.

Contact Health Law Attorneys Experienced Investigations of Mental Health Counselors, Psychologists, Social Workers, and Family Therapists.

The attorneys of The Health Law Firm provide legal representation to mental health counselors, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and family therapists in Department of Health (DOH) investigations, Department of Regulatory Agencies (DORA) investigations, board hearings, FBI investigations, and other types of investigations of health professionals and providers. We also defend health professionals and health facilities in general litigation matters and business litigation matters.
To contact The Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 or toll-free: (888) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

Sources:

Counselor Liability Claim Report: 2nd Edition.”CNA AND HPSO COUNSELOR SPOTLIGHT: Telebehavioral Health”. Healthcare Providers Service Organization (HPSO). (2019). https://www.hpso.com/getmedia/f9369f13-7035-4955-bcb6-9843b9ff44c2/counselor-spotlight-telebehavioral-health.pdf 
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). “Telehealth and behavioral health”. (July 25, 2023).https://telehealth.hhs.gov/patients/telehealth-and-behavioral-health#:~:text=Telehealth%20is%20a%20safe%20and,a%20long%2Dterm%20treatment%20plan. 
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). “What is Telemental Health?” (Accessed on December 12, 223). https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/what-is-telemental-health 


About the Author:
Amanda I. Forbes, practices health law with The Health Law Firm in its Altamonte Springs, Florida, office. Its main office is in Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com. The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Ave. Suite 1000, Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620 or toll-free: (888) 331-6620.


Attorney Positions with The Health Law Firm.
The Health Law Firm is always looking for qualified attorneys interested in health law practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. If you are a member of The Florida Bar and are interested, forward a cover letter and your resume to: [email protected] or fax to: (407) 331-3030.
“The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of and a registered service mark of The Health Law Firm, P.A., a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2024 The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any fashion in any medium for any purpose without the written permission of the copyright owner.  The copyright owner asserts the right to have its name associated with the use of any part of this work.
By |2024-03-14T09:59:14-04:00January 2, 2024|Categories: Mental Health Law Blog|Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |Comments Off on Tele-behavioral Health: Important Legal Considerations for Mental Health Providers

Mental Health Counselors and Psychotherapists: Simple Rules for Keeping Your License and Avoiding Complaints

George Indest HeadshotBy George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law

I represent many mental health counselors, social workers, psychologists, and professional counselors, defending them on complaints being investigated against their professional licenses. Many complaints and investigations arise because the therapist has strayed over the line and crossed the therapist-client boundary. In reviewing these cases, I have drawn up a list of a few simple “bright line” rules that can help save you many hours of stress and mental anguish as well as thousands of dollars in attorney’s fees and costs defending yourself

These “rules” may seem to be common sense, but there they are, anyway:

1. DO NOT ever meet the client at an outside social activity or attend a social event with the client. This includes “just dinner” or “just-drinks.”

2. DO NOT text the client. Texting is not secure and leads to casual and unprofessional thinking and conversation with the client. Many health care institutions prohibit their physicians and employees from texting with clients because of the HIPAA Security and Privacy Rules. You can use that as an excuse if you need one.

3. DO take a screenshot and print out the text when you violate the above rule. Place it in the client’s health record because you will probably be seeing it again, attached to a complaint.

4. DO send an e-mail or, better yet, a professional letter to the client, instead of texting the client. Print out a copy and place it in the client’s health record, because you will probably see it again.

5. DO NOT EVER make any suggestive or sexual remarks to the client in any communications, oral or written or text, or e-mail. In fact, DON’T even think about it. This includes off-color jokes and comments.

6. DO immediately terminate the relationship with the client, transferring care to a different therapist, if the client suggests anything of a sexual nature involving you.

7. DO NOT talk about other clients with the client.

8. DO NOT talk about your own personal life with the client. Especially DO NOT let the client have your personal home address or personal e-mail address.

9. DO NOT ever have sex with a client or former client. DO NOT even think of it. If you start to think of it, see Rule 6, above. Consider clients and former clients “off-limits” no matter how much you are tempted. If you are religious, just consider this as an attempt by Satan to seduce you. If it works, you are going to be in Hell, even before you die.

10. DO know what professional boundaries are and DO NOT cross them. This includes allowing a personal relationship to grow between you and the client, and includes selling anything to the client (e.g., Girl Scout cookies, tickets to a charitable event, Amway products, candy bars for your kids’ school band, etc.), agreeing to meet the client at any outside event, accepting gifts from the client, hiring the client to work for you, accepting “voluntary” services from the client (including volunteering to work in your office). If you need a friend that bad, terminate the therapist-client relationship and see Rule 6, above.

11. DO know that if you have even a suspicion that your therapist-client relationship is getting out of bounds, then it already is out of bounds. See Rule 6, above.

12. DO call a professional therapist colleague who is more senior to you and consult her or him about the “situation” if you think there may be a “situation.”

These may sound like “no-brainers” to you, but you would be surprised at how many complaints against licensed counselors and psychologists there are as a result of violating one or more of these “rules.”

(Note: These “rules” are just guidelines meant to help you keep out of trouble; these are not meant to be enforced against anyone, nor do they create or represent any “standard of care.”)

For additional information on how our firm can assist you in matters like this, click here to read one of our prior blogs.

Contact Health Law Attorneys Experienced Investigations of Mental Health Counselors, Psychologists, Social Workers, and Family Therapists.

The attorneys of The Health Law Firm provide legal representation to mental health counselors, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and family therapists in Department of Health (DOH) investigations, Department of Regulatory Agencies (DORA) investigations, board hearings, FBI investigations, and other types of investigations of health professionals and providers. To contact The Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 or toll-free at (888) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

We also defend health professionals and health facilities in general litigation matters and business litigation matters.

To contact The Health Law Firm, please call (407) 331-6620 or Toll-Free: (888) 331-6620 and visit our website at www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.

About the Author: George F. Indest III, J.D., M.P.A., LL.M., is Board Certified by The Florida Bar in Health Law. He is the President and Managing Partner of The Health Law Firm, which has a national practice. Its main office is in the Orlando, Florida, area. www.TheHealthLawFirm.com The Health Law Firm, 1101 Douglas Avenue, Suite 1000, Altamonte Springs, FL 32714, Phone: (407) 331-6620 or Toll-Free: (888) 331-6620

“The Health Law Firm” is a registered fictitious business name of and a registered service mark of The Health Law Firm, P.A., a Florida professional service corporation, since 1999.
Copyright © 2021 The Health Law Firm. All rights reserved.

By |2024-03-14T09:59:15-04:00December 27, 2023|Categories: Mental Health Law Blog|Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |Comments Off on Mental Health Counselors and Psychotherapists: Simple Rules for Keeping Your License and Avoiding Complaints
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