Nurses: Advanced Practice May Mean Advanced Legal Issues
From George Indest’s Nursing Law Manual
The advanced nurse is a registered nurse (RN) who has completed some form of advanced nursing education and training. Two types of advanced nurses are the advanced registered nurse practitioner (ARNP) and the certified nurse specialist. In Florida, there are three types of certified nurse specialists: certified registered nurse anesthetists, certified nurse midwives, and nurse practitioners. The potential risk of liability for an advanced nurse is as real as the risks for any other nurse. In addition to all of the legal issues that a registered nurse is faced with, the advanced nurse is susceptible to even more legal issues.
Advanced nurses are held to higher standards of care than RNs or licensed practical nurses (LPNs) because of the higher degree of education and training that an advanced nurse is required undergo. Advanced nurses are required to meet further certification requirements in order to become licensed. The additional certification requirements were established because advanced nurses have a much broader scope of practice than RNs or LPNs.
An advanced nurse is held to all of the same duties and standards as a RN, as well as additional duties that are placed on the advanced nurse because of advanced training. A failure to uphold the duties of a nurse can lead to the same consequences that a registered nurse could face, including action being taken by the Board of Nursing against the nurses license.
Advanced Registered Nurse Practioner (ARNP)
In Florida, an advanced registered nurse practitioner (ARNP) can only perform medical acts of diagnosis, treatment and operation under the supervision of a Florida-licensed medical doctor, osteopathic physician, or dentist.
The Board of Nursing, has established rules, pursuant to Florida Statutes, which regulate the requirements for a protocol between a physician or a dentist and an ARNP. The protocol must be in writing and signed by both the ARNP and the physician or dentist, showing a mutual agreement between the parties. The protocol must also include a description of the duties of the ARNP; a description of the duties of the physician or dentist; the management areas for which the ARNP is responsible, including the conditions for which therapies may be initiated and the treatments that may be initiated by the ARNP, depending on patient condition and judgment of the ARNP; and the drug therapies that the ARNP may prescribe, initiate, monitor, alter, or order. The protocol must include a provision for annual review by the parties which are privy to the protocol
In addition, the original protocol must be submitted to the Board within thirty days of the renewal of the ARNP’s license. A copy of the protocol and a copy of the notice required by Section 458.348(1), Florida Statutes, shall be kept at the site of practice of each party to the protocol. Any alterations to the protocol or amendments should be signed by the ARNP and the physician, or dentists and filed with the Board within 30 days of the alteration to be kept in the Department of Health for filing purposes only. Specific conditions and a procedure for identifying those conditions that require direct evaluation or specific consultation by the physician or dentist must be contained within the protocol.
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNA)
Administration of anesthesia by a certified registered nurse anesthetists requires special training and certification. Oversight and availability of an anesthesiologist is required by most organizations. The major risks for registered nurse anesthetists include the improper placement of an airway, failure to recognize significant changes in a patient’s condition and the improper use of anesthetics.
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
A nurse practitioner, NP, is a registered nurse who has completed the necessary education to engage in primary health care decision making. A physician may not delegate a task to a NP when regulations specify that the physician must perform it personally or when the delegation is prohibited by state law or by an organizations own policies. A NP who practices outside of her scope of practice can be sanctioned by the Department of Health and if an injury occurs to a patient that NP can be civilly liable to the patient.
Certified Nurse Midwives (CNM)
Nurse midwives provide comprehensive prenatal care including delivery for patients who are at low risk for complications. Nurse midwives manage normal prenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care. In addition, nurse midwives will care for newborns as long as there are no complications. Nurse midwives also provide primary care for women’s issues from puberty to post menopause. The standard of care for a certified nurse midwife is that of a reasonably prudent certified nurse midwife engaged in the practice obstetrics and gynecology.
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH (DOH) INVESTIGATION
One of the biggest mistakes an advanced nurse makes when being investigated by the Department of Health, DOH, is failing to forward a complete copy of the patient medical record when subpoenaed by the DOH investigator as part of the investigation process. If the advanced nurse does not make an objection to the DOH investigators request for a copy of a patient’s medical record, he or she is required to forward the medical record to the investigator. A failure to comply with this can lead to further disciplinary action against a nurse’s license.
For more information about nursing law, or to read more from the Nursing Law Manual, visit www.TheHealthLawFirm.com.